State of Indian Stock Markets – June 2016

This is the monthly update of the state of Indian stock markets. As of now, it comprises only of an analysis of Nifty50‘s ratios, namely P/E, P/BV ratios and Dividend Yield.

But before that, lets see what happened in June 2016, which was a month of exits.

RBI Governor Raghuram Rajan said No to a second term and instead, has decided to return to academia (lucky him!) after his term ends in September. Read his address to RBI staff here.

People termed it as Rexit (= Rajan + Exit). I am a fan of Mr. Rajan for his sensible views and how he took a tough approach towards cleanup of PSU banks. Personally I think that having him around with the current PM in driver’s seat, would have been great for the economy. But life moves on and so will the Indian economy.


Then people of Britain decided to do a Brexit (= Britain + Exit) from the European Union (EU).

In short term, Indian markets were expected to react negatively to the news of Rexit. But that did not happen. Tells how brutal the markets can be towards people’s expectations. 🙂 As for the Brexit, there was a knee-jerk reaction when indices fell more than 2% in a day (might look like a big drop in short term but is nothing when long-term is considered). Some stocks whose business is dependent on British and European economy, witnessed far deeper one-day cuts. But markets seem to have recovered since then. Experts are still trying to predict the consequences of Brexit. But no on seems to be sure about the actual impact. Whether it will result in a mild recession in UK or whether government will eventually disregard people’s verdict in referendum and stay back in EU – no one knows anything.

Coming back to the state of our own markets…

The numbers are averages of P/E, P/BV and Dividend Yield in each month. The heat maps don’t show the maximum and minimum values of each month.

Caution – Please remember that relying solely on averages can be risky. Its like a 6-feet person drowning in a river which had an average depth of 4-feet. 🙂

Don’t make any investment decisions based solely on just one or two ‘average’ indicators. At most, treat these heat maps as broad indicators of market sentiments.

So here are the Heat Maps…


P/E (Monthly Average)
Price to Earnings Nifty June 2016

P/E Ratio (on last day of June 2016): 22.75
P/E Ratio (on last day of May 2016): 22.60


P/BV (Monthly Average)
Price to Book Nifty June 2016
P/BV Ratio (on last day of June 2016): 3.37
P/BV Ratio (on last day of May 2016): 3.40

Dividend Yield (Monthly Average)
Dividend Yield Nifty June 2016
Dividend Yield (last day of June 2016): 1.25%
Dividend Yield (last day of May 2016): 1.32%


You can read about last month’s update hereThe State of Markets section has also been updated (link).

For detailed analysis of the relation between investments made at various P/E, P/BV and Dividend Yield levels and the historical returns, please have a look at these 3 posts:


Stable Investor Subscribe

Advertisements

State of Indian Stock Markets – May 2016

This is the monthly update of the state of Indian stock markets. As of now, it comprises only of Nifty50’s P/E, P/BV ratios and Dividend Yield.

The numbers are averages of P/E, P/BV and Dividend Yield in each month. The maps don’t show the maximum and minimum values of each month.

Caution – Please remember that relying solely on averages can be risky. Its like a 6-feet person drowning in a river which had an average depth of 4-feet. 🙂

So do not make any investment decision based solely on just one or two ‘average’ indicators. At most, treat these heat maps as broad indicators of market sentiments.

So here are the Heat Maps…


P/E (Monthly Average)
Nifty PE May 2016


P/E Ratio (on last day of May 2016): 22.60
P/E Ratio (on last day of April 2016): 21.24


P/BV (Monthly Average)
Nifty PB May 2016

P/BV Ratio (on last day of May 2016): 3.40
P/BV Ratio (on last day of April 2016): 3.27

Dividend Yield (Monthly Average)
Nifty Dividend Yield May 2016

Dividend Yield (last day of May 2016): 1.32%
Dividend Yield (last day of April 2016): 1.37%


You can read about last month’s update hereThe State of Markets section has also been updated (link).

For detailed analysis of the relation between investments made at various P/E, P/BV and Dividend Yield levels and the historical returns, I suggest you have a look at these 3 posts:
Stable Investor Subscribe

State of Indian Stock Markets – April 2016

I regularly update the State of Markets section (link) on Stable Investor. This time when I updated it, I took a step further and decided to try and publish heat maps for 3 popular ratios (P/E, P/BV, Dividend Yield) of Nifty 50, on monthly basis.

The numbers are averages of P/E, P/BV and Dividend Yield in each month. The maps don’t show the maximum and minimum ratios of each month.

As with any such ‘average’ indicators, its worth saying that you should not make any investment decision, based solely on just one or two indicators. At most, these heat maps should be treated as broad indicators of market sentiments.

So here are the Heat Maps…



P/E (Monthly Average)


Nifty Historical PE Ratio
P/E Ratio (on last day of April 2016): 21.24


P/BV (Monthly Average)


Nifty Historical PBV Ratio
P/BV Ratio (on last day of April 2016): 3.27%


Dividend Yield (Monthly Average)

Nifty Historical Dividend Yield
Dividend Yield (last day of April 2016): 1.37%

For detailed analysis of what have been the historical returns for investments made at various P/E, P/BV or Dividend Yield levels, I suggest you have a look at these 3 posts:
I am planning to see whether I can also bring in data for some other mid-cap / small-cap indices from next month. Do share your feedback and help me improve these monthly State of Indian Stock Market posts.
 

Do Indian Markets Bounce off PE levels of 12 & 24?

Sounds like a title of some Technical Analysis writeup? I don’t blame you. 🙂 But rest assured it is not. Infact, this will be an entertaining post for you if you are interested in giving some thought to PE-Based investing. In previous post, I did a detailed analysis of the PE Ratio of Nifty 50 in last 16+ years.

It does throw up some interesting insights. But what catches the eye is that there are levels, which the Nifty generally fails to breach on lower and upper sides.

There is no doubt that by investing (more) in markets trading at low PE multiples, chances of earning higher future returns increase. Similarly by investing in markets trading at higher PEs, chances of lower future returns increase. It is very simple.

But to say that one can time the market on basis of just Index PE will be an over-simplification.

As we saw in previous post, the mere fact that expected average returns are high does not mean that the returns you (in particular) get, will be guaranteedon lines of the high averages. It does not work like that.

If you are unable to understand this point, I recommend reading the post – especially the example of average depth of river part.

Now I did the following analysis in 2012too. There were clear indicators then, that broader indices had a dislike for staying above or below certain PE multiples. Not much has changed in last 4 years.

Without getting into the statistical accuracy of numbers, the analysis shows that these PE multiples are PE12 and PE24.

Have a look at graph below:

PE Ratio Nifty 12 24

The blue line is actual Nifty level.

The red line is hypothetical Nifty level at PE24 at that time.

The green line is hypothetical Nifty level at PE12 at that time.

Clearly, Nifty seems to have trouble staying above PE24 (considered highly overvalued) and below PE12 (considered highly undervalued).

Whenever it reaches either of these two levels, it seems to bounce off in opposite direction!

Though the chart might look like a screen-grab from a trader’s terminal, it’s a clear display of how fundamental this concept is. 🙂

Buy low (PE). Sell high (PE).

If you think it’s timing, then you are right.

If you think it cannot be done, then you can try this instead:

Buy low (PE). Avoid buying high (PE).

More manageable. Right?

Now ofcourse you can say that I should have used PE25 or PE11 to make it more accurate. But the idea here is not to be as accurate as possible. Rather, the idea is to become cautious when markets start moving in irrational territories. Index PE depends a lot on what are the index constituents and other factors.

So broadly speaking and ofcourse basing my conclusions on past data, PE12 seems like a clear signal that investors are unreasonably pessimistic and at PE24, over optimistic. Both are unsustainable and hence, indicate near term reversion towards mean. Though nobody can guarantee that markets will behave on similar lines in future, chances of that happening are pretty high.

Those who think that, ‘this time its different’ – have not had much success when it comes to investing. 🙂

My analysis and conviction is based on the fundamental assumption that India is a growing economy (atleast for next decade and a half). And I believe that markets are highly undervalued around PE12 and highly overvalued as they approach PE24.

But ofcourse, you may choose to differ on this and invest accordingly.

So instead of getting into this debate, lets come back to the title of the post – Is it safe to say that index bounces off PE levels of 12 and 24?

It seems to be true. But note that markets don’t stay at such low/high levels for very long time.

So inspite of being sure to invest when PE12 is crossed on the downside, you might find yourself lacking enough firepower (cash) to take advantage of the situation.

Have a look at times the index has spent at various PE levels:

PE Ratio Nifty Time Spent 1
Now lets aggregate these PE bands into smaller groups:

PE Ratio Nifty Time Spent 2

Just 1% of the time – market has stayed below PE12. Can you catch it?

Chances are high that market will catch you unaware. And believe me, market is capable of doing that beautifully. 🙂

So what should one do?

Its simple, you cannot wait for markets to fall to PE12. But you can become (more) interested at it crosses PE15 on the downside. That is more manageable. By ‘becoming interested’, I mean that you should have a thought process like this:

“Market just came down to PE15. It looks attractive. But what if it falls lower? Do I have the money to buy more if it goes down to PE12-13? I guess I should be alert and start preparing myself.”

You might ask that why am I telling you all this when PE is neither near 12 nor 24 (Currently 19)? It is because you won’t listen to me when markets are booming (PE24) or when everybody else around you is selling and running away from markets (PE12). 🙂

So keep this in mind.

P/E Ratio Analysis of Nifty – February 2016 Update

Note – I have updated this analysis in 2017 here.

I had been working to make this analysis more useful. Like all previous updates, this one too has index (Nifty 50) analysis of 3, 5, and 7 years. But this time, I have also added an analysis of 10-year returns. Since most readers of Stable Investor are interested in long term investing, it made sense to add an analysis for a longer tenure.

In addition to that, I have also incorporated few more tracking points to give a more comprehensive P/E based picture. The details will become evident as you go through this analysis.

In case you are interested in reading previous years’ analysis, then you can access them here: 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015. (The latest summaries are available in tab named State of Market)

So what exactly is that this analysis tells?

To put it simply, it tells that it makes sense to invest (if possible, more) when general indices are trading at lower PEs. This statement is based on last 17 years’ worth of analysis.

But mind you, there is ofcourse no guarantee that the trends might continue in future.

So this analysis tells about the possible returns one can get when the money is invested (in index) at various PE ratios.

Let’s go ahead with the updated findings…

Nifty PE Analysis 2016

The table above clearly shows that if one is investing in markets where PE<12, the average returns over the next 3, 5, 7 and 10 year periods are astonishing 39%, 29%, 23% and 19% respectively. Now this is something remarkable. The money is doubling every 2-4 years.

On the other hand are PE ratios above 24. These are levels that are considered to be highly overvalued, in market terms. And returns on money invested at these levels, for the next 3, 5, 7 and 10-years are (-)5%, 3.4%, 9.6% and 12%.

This shows that if you invest in high PE markets, your chances of low (and even negative) returns increase substantially.

And for your information, we are currently trading at close to PE 19.

So as you saw, investing at lower PEs gives bumper returns. But does it mean that it will always be so?

The answer is No.

Why?

Because the above numbers are ‘averages’. To explain this more clearly, lets take an example. Imagine that your height is 6 feet. Now you don’t know swimming. But you want to cross a river, whose average depth is 5 feet. Will you cross it?

You shouldn’t – because it’s the average depth that is 5 feet. At some places, the river might be 3 feet deep. At others (and unfortunately for you), it might be 10 feet.

That is how averages work. Isn’t it?

So this needs to be kept in mind. And to handle this point, I have also found the maximum and minimum returns during all the periods under analysis.

Nifty PE Analysis 3 Years
Nifty PE Analysis 5 Years
Nifty PE Analysis 7 Years
Nifty PE Analysis 10 Years

As you can see, there is a big difference between the minimum and maximum returns for almost all periods. So the returns that you will get will depend a lot on when exactly you enter the market. Yes, it sounds like timing the market. But this is a reality. For those who can, timing the market works beautifully.

But point is that most people can’t – And this is the reason why they shouldn’t try it either.

Hence even though the average returns give a good picture for long-term investors (look at the table for 10 year), its still possible that you end up getting returns that are closer to the ones that are shown in minimum (10Y Returns) column and not the average returns. 😉

This is another reason why I introduced the column for standard deviation in all tables above (see last column).

Analyzing standard deviation tells you – how much the actual return will vary from the average returns. So higher the deviation, higher will be the variation in actual returns. I strongly recommend you read this post on importance of Standard Deviation by Prof Pattabiraman here.

Now, lets touch upon a very important point. Buying low makes sense. So should you wait to only invest at low PEs? Though it might make theoretical sense to do it, fact is that it is very difficult to wait for low PE markets.

Look at the time spent by the index at sub-PE12 levels.

It is just about 2% of the time since 1999 (Ref: Column name ‘Time Spent in PE Band’ in tables above).

Markets at below PE12 are extremely rare. For common investors, it’s almost impossible to wait for such days – that might be spaced years apart.

Another useful thing to note here is that as your investment horizon increases, the expected returns more or less are good enough, even when one invests at high PEs.

So, even if an investor puts his money in the index at PE24, the expected average returns are more than 12%. That’s pretty good enough.

And what about the maximum and minimum achieved since 1999?

At 13.8% and 10.5% respectively, these are not bad either. This is what really shows that if you are investing for long term, equity is your best bet for wealth creation.

The longer you stay invested, higher are the chances of making money in stock markets….even if you have entered at higher levels. On the contrary, if someone was thinking to invest at high PEs (above 24) for less than 3 years, then I am almost certain that this person will lose money.

Recommended Reading:

  1. Becoming a Value Investor using Nifty PE Ratio
  2. A Small Guide I refer to when investing in Stock Markets

Now you might be tempted to ask – what is it that I do with my own money (after knowing all this since I have been doing this analysis for past many years)?

The answer is that I have tried to keep my financial life simple.

I have few base SIPs running all the time. I don’t disturb them whether it’s a low PE market or a high PE one.

Since I am also interested in giving booster shots to my long-term returns, I invest additional amount when I feel comfortable with valuations on the lower side. I also keep a Market Crash Fund that I use every now and then. I have covered about it in detail here, hereand here. But I don’t recommend that approach to anyone. It’s for people with time and intent to track markets closely.

For most readers, knowing the market PE gives a broad idea about the valuations of overall markets. It helps ensure that you know when the markets are over-optimistic and hence, it reduces the chances of making mistakes when investing. It also helps in knowing when the overall mood of the market is down and probably, full of more than necessary pessimism. Let your base SIPs run irrespective of market levels. But see if you can benefit from some of the insights that analysis like above provides. 🙂

Reminder: I am talking about index-valuations here and not individual stocks.

A reader had asked me to create a PE chart to show monthly changes in Nifty valuations. Heat Map below shows monthly Nifty valuations – based on index’s monthly average PEs.

Nifty PE Analysis Long Term

How changes in Index Constituents impact Index PE Ratios and PE Based Investing?

I was working on a more comprehensive P/E Ratio analysis of Nifty and Sensex when I thought about bringing this important point to everyone’s notice.

In December 2015, Sensex underwent few small changes. Two companies in the 30-share index were replaced. Adani Ports & SEZ and Asian Paints were added to the index and Hindalco and Vedanta were removed (source). I am sure that weak performance of the two outgoing companies combined with a bleak outlook for the metals sector in general, must have necessitated this change.

Now this is not unusual. The index management committee regularly reconstitutes indices to (and I guess) take index to newer heights by only allowing companies with better incremental earning potentials. 🙂

So what will happen when two low profit (or loss-making) companies are removed from the index?

By replacing these companies with profits-making ones, the total earnings of Sensex will increase. This would mean a lower PE ratio, which is calculated by dividing the total market cap of the constituent companies in the index by their total net profits.

And as we can see from table below, the immediate impact of this change was that PE came down on the day of change, inspite of index going up.

Sensex PE Ratio 2016

So this particular fall is PE is not because of fall in share prices. It is purely because the index constituents have changed and consequently, earnings have increased. For those who thought that markets have come down suddenly in valuations, this is something to make note of.

This change will also have an impact on Sensex valuations based on future earnings estimates. That is another matter the estimates are at best, estimates. 🙂

I wanted to highlight this because I regularly make references to link between returns and market PEs and how one can use this indicator to broadly assess market valuations.

Extend this concept of change in index constituents and you will realize that when comparison of index’s PE in 2016 is made with say of year 2001, then essentially, two very different indices might be getting compared.

To put it simply, the index of 2016 would be quite different from that of 2001. Sensex of yesteryears might be giving more weightage to metal and cement companies. In comparison, index of today might be more biased towards sectors like FMCG and IT. So when we compare historical PE ratios with current ones, then we need to acknowledge that we are not exactly comparing apples to apples. Due to law of averages, its also not like apple-to-orange comparison but its still not the same apples we are talking about. 🙂

Another thing that worries me is management framework of the index. I am sure that the index management committee would be doing their jobs honestly and carrying out required due diligences, when including and excluding companies in indices. But I am not sure whether there are any SEBI norms governing them or index changes.The indices traded on stock exchanges are owned (not sure) and managed by separate legal entities that do not come under the direct supervision of SEBI. I think there is a scope of increasing regulatory oversight here.

Becoming a Value Investor using Nifty PE Ratio

First of all, I am overwhelmed with the responses I got for the financial concerns and issues survey conducted few days back. Thanks to you all, there are so many feedbacks that I am still reading through all of them.

And to be frank, I was surprised to see so many people being so honest and more importantly, aware of their financial issues. This awareness in itself is like a quarter (not half) battle won. I plan to regularly take up issues raised in the survey and do detailed posts around it. And here is the first one…

One of the readers had an interesting concern:

I am not a value investor. And nor can I become one as I don’t have the time to monitor or analyse stocks. But I still want to become a sensible investor who invests more when there is panic around. I have read that it’s wise to Buy Low and Sell High. I don’t want to think much about Selling-High right now, as I am pretty young. But I do want to invest more when everyone else is selling, i.e. I want to Buy-Low. But if I go for individual stocks, it can be risky. For someone like me, it makes sense to stick to mutual funds. But how can I know when to Buy More. Even if I invest regularly, shouldn’t I be buying more when markets are down and I have additional funds?

That’s a pretty reasonable concern of the reader. And I think that many among us do not really have the time to become real investors. We are better suited to piggyback on expertise of others.

So what I understand from this question is that he wants to become a Value Investor, without bothering too much about picking individual stocks.

Fair enough…I would say…

By the way, I don’t consider myself to be a value investor. At most, I am an opportunist who is interested in buying good companies, at relatively cheap prices and holding them for very long periods of time. And yes…every now and then, I do take up small short-term speculative positions as well. But these positions are small and generally not more than 5% of my overall portfolio size.

I know…the above paragraph is more like a disclaimer. So anything I say from here onwards should be considered as coming from the mouth of a self-confessed non-value investor and not an expert of any kind. 🙂

But jokes apart, it’s a fact that 95 out of 100 people who invest in stocks, would be much better off if they do not invest in stocks directly. They should rather stick with well-diversified mutual funds. And I am saying this not because I consider myself to be an expert or an authority in something (on the contrary, I am a pretty regular guy as detailed in 17 Unknown but Honest Facts about me). But because successful investing is more about our own personalities and discipline rather than just about picking the right stocks.

 

To explain this, lets take an example. Suppose your overall portfolio size is Rs 10 Lacs. Now you consider yourself to be a good investor and find a good stock selling cheaply. But you only invest Rs 5000 out of the Rs 10 lac in this stock. This stock goes on to become a multibagger (10X) – your Rs 5000 investment becomes Rs 50,000. But at an overall level, your portfolio of Rs 10 lacs only moves up by Rs 50,000 (or Rs 45,000 to be precise) ~ to Rs 10.5 lacs. Nothing much to boast of. Right?

So it is never just about picking the right stock. It’s also about position sizing and how convinced you are about the stock (and a thousand other factors).

Successful value investing is also about being prepared for the rare investment-worthy opportunities. This means that even if you have chosen the right stock, and are ready to allocate a significant part of your capital to this stock, you still need to have the cash to invest in the opportunity. Because if you don’t, you cannot become a value investor, of for that matter even a decently good investor.

So what should an individual who wants to do value investing, but not through specific stocks, do?

The answer is not very complicated. But there is a catch, which I will disclose after giving the solution.

Lets break down this problem statement into 2 parts:

  • Identify situations when it makes sense to invest additional money.
  • Identify investment options where one can invest

Here is the solution…

Part 1

 

It is not difficult to identify situations where it makes sense to invest more (and as much as possible) for an average investor. A real value investor can go and find undervalued stock in a bull market. But an average investor needs to be right first and then think about the return percentages. And chances of being right with individual stock picks are lower than that of being right about investing in a group of companies.

So here is an indicator (or rather 3), which give you helpful advise about when to invest more.

PE Ratio India Stocks
PBV Ratio India Stocks
Dividend Yields India Stocks

If you go through these above tables you will realize a clear correlation between these indicators (P/E, P/BV and Dividend Yields) and Returns you can ‘expect’ to earn when you invest on basis of these indicators. And here, by investing I mean – investing in a large group of stocks and not in individual stocks.

So…

Lower the P/E Ratio when you invest, better your chances of getting higher returns. (Proof)

Lower the P/BV Ratio when you invest, better your chances of getting higher returns. (Proof)

Higher the Dividend Yield when you invest, better your chances of getting higher returns. (Proof)

It is as simple as that. And a few years back, I even found a range of P/E ratios, which seem to control Indian markets. You will be surprised to see how clear this PE Band is!! I was mightily surprised when I say it first. Here is another interesting analysis of how much time Indian markets spend at various PE levels.

Now you would want to know how to track these indicators regularly. The answer is that you can either track it using this link on NSE’s website. Or you can check out monthly updations, which I make to State of Indian Market page.

Part 2

Now comes the second part. Once you know that it’s a no-brainer to invest at a particular moment, and you have the cash power to do it, the question is where to invest.

I know you would love to invest in individual stocks, see them become out-of-the-world multibaggers and boast of being a great stock picker. But lets be honest. It’s not easy at all. Even expert investors are unable to find great stocks easily. So for all practical purposes, individual stock picking is best avoided by average investor. End of discussion.

So where does one invest?

The answer is… in a group of stocks. A well diversified selection of stocks belonging to various industries, which as a group help in mitigating the risk of getting it wrong by investing in individual stocks. Yes. I am talking about mutual funds.

When its time to invest more (identified in Part 1), you need to invest heavily in well diversified and proven mutual funds (Part 2). Done. Nothing else to do. You will be rich. 🙂

So the action plan for you is:

  1. Invest regularly in a few good mutual funds through SIP.
  2. If possible, increase SIP every year by 5% to 10%
  3. Keep a regular track of P/E, P/BV and Dividend Ratio (DY) of overall market.
  4. If markets go down and with it PE, PBV goes down and DY goes up, you would do well to invest additional money in these mutual funds.
  5. If the thought of investing more when your portfolio is going down does not make sense to you, then you need to rethink whether stock markets are a place for you or not.

The above approach is like giving booster shots to your portfolio when markets are going down. I have done a comprehensive 4-part analysis on investing more when markets are down. Results of the analysis were surprising as it proved that just by keeping it simple, i.e. investing a constant amount regularly still made a lot of sense for majority of investors. But if you have additional money, which you can invest and forget for few years, don’t hesitate to put it in mutual funds.

I hope that with this post, I have been able to clarify on how to become a value investor by using just plain, simple mutual funds. Let me know if you all have any questions or suggestions for this post. It will help me improve future posts addressing financial concerns.

Note – Whenever you think about investing in stocks or mutual funds, make sure that you are doing it for atleast more than 5 years. There have been 5-year periods when stock markets did absolutely nothing.

P/E Ratio Analysis of Nifty in 2015 (Since last 16+ Years)

It seems like a season of Excel-based Analysis. You must have noticed that majority of the posts I have been doing in last 1 or 2 months, use Excel-based analysis. Though there is no particular reason for this, here I am back again with another analysis. Don’t worry…it’s not a very complex analysis. It’s simple and very useful…

Regular readers would be familiar with my ‘fetish’ for tracking State of the Indian Markets on a monthly basis. And I make it a point to update the data set every year to update the yearly returns calculations. I have been doing this every year since Stable Investor started, i.e. in 2012, 2013and 2014.

So this post is about analyzing P/E Ratio of a popular index Nifty50 and the returns earned in 3, 5 and 7 year periods, when we invest (theoretically) in the index.

But before I move forward, you might question the rationale of doing such an analysis. And that too, on a regular basis. The reason is very simple. This small effort ensures that I have a broad idea about the valuations of overall markets. It helps ensure that I am not entering markets, when they are over-optimistic. This in turn reduces the chances of making mistakes when investing for long term.

It also helps me in knowing when the overall mood of the market is dull and full of pessimism. In past I have been unable to utilize such times to invest heavily. But I do not want to miss out on such opportunities in future. I hope you understand what I mean… 🙂

So let’s go ahead with my findings…

The data has been sourced from NSE’s website (link 1 and link 2) and starting from 1st January 1999. Ratio related data prior to this period is not available.

So here is the result of the analysis…


The table above clearly shows that if one is investing in markets where PE<12, returns over the next 3, 5 and 7 year periods are astonishing 39%, 29% and 25% every year. That is money doubling almost every 2-3 years!!

But markets with PE below 12 are very rare. To give you an idea about the rarity, the markets have been available at PE<12 on only about 50 days since 1999, i.e. in 4000+ trading days!!

Though as average investors, it’s almost impossible to wait for such days, it shows the power of long term, patient investing for those who know when to wait and when to jump in the markets.

On the other end of the spectrum is PE above 24. These are levels which are quite overvalued and returns over the next 3, 5 and 7 year reduces to (-)5.1%, 2.7% and 9.9%.
This shows that if you invest in high PE markets, your chances of low (and even negative) returns increases substantially.

And for your information, we are currently trading at PE=24 😉

But here is another interesting thing to note here. Even at a costly PE24, if an investor stays invested for more than 7 years, then average returns are still a very decent 9.9%. And this shows that longer you stay invested, higher are the chances of making money in stock markets….even if you have entered at higher levels (Caution: I am talking about index investing here and not individual stocks).

If you are still not convinced with the data shown in above table, I have a few graphs for you. These graphs have been plotted to show the exact Returns against the exact PE on a daily basis (though arranged with increasing PE, PB and decreasing Dividend Yields). 

Three graphs – one each for 3-Year, 5-Year and 7-Year Rolling Returns:

The left axis shows the PE levels (BLUE Line) and the right axis shows the Returns (in %) in the relevant period (Light Red Bars)


The 3 Year graph clearly shows that lower the PE when you invest, higher are the chances of making good returns in short term like 3 years and 5 years (graph below). Yes… I consider 3 and 5 Years as short term. 🙂


Now, interesting thing about 7 Year graph below is that there are no negative returns. 🙂 What does it mean? It means that it is very difficult to earn negative returns if you invest for long periods like 7 years, 15 years or even 30 years!!


Next I will be sharing my findings on a similar analysis for Price-To-Book-Value Ratio, followed by one for Dividend Yield of the Nifty since 1999. Hope to do it in a day or two.